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Hidden Lead

Tracking California used new analytical methods to estimate that during 1999-2010, most states may have missed more than half of their lead-poisoned children.

Nationally, only 64% of lead-poisoned children were identified. In California, only 37% of lead-poisoned children were identified.

The findings from this study suggest that recent lead poisoning estimates that are based solely on clinical data are too low and many lead-poisoned children remain undiagnosed and untreated.

For the U.S. overall, about 60% of lead-poisoned children were found.

The effectiveness of screening and testing practices varied by state.

Key Project Information

Project Time Period


Project Funder

The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cooperative agreement number 5U38EH000953.

Project Contact

For more information, please contact

Project Materials

State Level Maps

Sub-State Level Maps

Project Publications

  1. Analysis of multiple-variable missing-not-at-random survey data for child lead surveillance using NHANES [2016] Eric Roberts, Paul English
  2. Assessing Child Lead Poisoning Case Ascertainment in the US, 1999-2010 [2017] Eric Roberts, Daniel Madrigal, Jhaqueline Valle, Galatea King, Linda Kite

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